Tests for various biological molecules and their properties

Essay by datrademarcJunior High, 9th gradeB, September 2006

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The Various Biological Molecules

1. Protein


The protein is a complex, high-molecular-weight compound organic compound made up of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.


Many proteins are enzymes or subunits of enzymes, catalyzing chemical reactions. Some other proteins form the struts and joints of cytoskeleton. Many membrane proteins function as binding proteins for cell to cell adhesion, transport, signal molecules and for defence.

2. Fats


Lipids contain of just large regions of carbon, hydrogen. They are all hydrophobic and not soluble in water.


Serves as store for energy, insulation, formation of plasma membrane, buoyancy for animals, form a layer around organs and hence serve as a layer of protection.

3. Reducing sugar


It is hexagonal .it is carbon + water. They are sugar polymers. Reducing sugar is an organic compound that is composed of atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1 carbon atom: 2 hydrogen atoms: 1 oxygen atom.

glucose, one example of reducing sugar, has six carbon atoms.


It provides energy and regulates blood glucose.

4. Starch


Starch consists of 2 molecules, amylase and amylopectin, which both comprise of 1-4 glucose linkages. It is also a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1


It provides us with energy.

Aim of the experiment

To test for the presence of starch, fats, reducing sugars in the bread, meat, scramble eggs and see whether the big breakfast is a healthy breakfast for people to consume.

Experimental procedure

1 Test for lipids


Step 1: grind the bread into small pieces which can put into the test-tube

Step 2: put the small pieces of bread into the test-tube

Step 3: add in ethanol into the test-tube

Step 4: add In water into the test-tube as well

Step 5:...